Lubāna municipality is rich with cultural and historical heritage. In archaeological excavations, which were carried out in the Lubāns plain in the surrounding of the lake from 1938 to 1999, approx. 30 Mesolithic and Neolithic, as well as Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age settlements were found. This shows that this region was inhabited already during the Mesolithic – more than 10 000 years BC. The wetland of Lake Lubāns is archaeologically important because it was here that the first inhabitants appeared in the territory of Latvia after the glacier had receded to the North. It happened during the time when Riga still was located under the waters of Baltic Ice Lake. It is thought that one of the European biggest Neolithic amber processing centres was situated in the wetland of Lake Lubāns, and it was functioning for two Millennia between 3300 and 1600 BC.
At the end of the 19th century the biggest estate of Vidzeme was situated in Lubāna.
Today’s Parka Street is the main road of the former Lubāna manor, and several historical manor buildings have remained on the side of it, like the manor cellars, the manor barn and horse stables, as well as the cheesery where Swiss cheese was made during that time. In the territory of Indrāni parish, there have been a number of Lubāna manor-houses and half-manors: Moroza half-manor, Zaļā (Green) manor (today’s “Kastaiņi”), Baloži manor (in Indrāni village), little Apogi manor, little Ērgala manor and Jaunlubāna manor. The manors of Lubāna and Meirāni were the property of barons von Wolff. In 1895 the owner of Meirāni manor Heinrich von Wolff set up a monument to his favourite hound. It can be seen on the way to the “Mežsētas” homestead which in former days was baron’s hunting manor, enclosed by Ozolsala and Mežsēta parks with a pond. During the agrarian reform in the 1920s the land of the manor was divided.
The palace of Lubāna manor, 1927. Photo: Alfrēds Grāvers
The surroundings of Lubāna were advantageous for wood processing and timber rafting in the rivers of Aiviekste and Liede. In 1935 the railroad between Madona and Lubāna was built. The traffic of passengers in this route was closed on March 31st, 1990. During that time the administrative work board of Lake Lubāns was functioning in the territory of today’s Lubāna municipality, along with more than 20 stores, a power-plant, two wood-working workshops, a fulling-mill and a dye-house, a brewery, a limekiln and a brick-kiln. From 1958 to 1992 Lubāna was an urban village. A bridge over the Aiviekste was built in 1964 using the reconstructed bridge supports from 1937. Last reconstruction of the bridge happened in 2002.
A bridge over the Aiviekste. Photo: Alfrēds Grāvers
Meirani parish was established in 1960. Later a part of its territory was incorporated into Indrāni parish. After World War II Lubāna became a significant centre of forest industry and agriculture of this area. One of Latvia’s biggest forestry enterprises was situated here. During the Soviet times, when mass collectivization began, sveral small kolkhozes were created. Afterwards they were merged into the state farm “Lubānā”, which was liquidated in 1995.
People of Lubāna municipality still remember the events of the Revolution of 1905, World War I and World War II, as well as the deportations in 1941 and 1949. 12 national archeological monuments are located in Lubāna municipality: the Kreklu purvs ancient burial site, Abaine settlement I, Abaine settlement II, Dzedziekste settlement I, Dzedziekste settlement II, the Meirāni ancient burial site (War graveyard), Abora settlement I, Abora settlement II, Līčagals settlement and ancient burial site, Nainiekste settlement, Visagals (Brākaļi) castle mound and Zaļmežnieki ancient burial site. In Lubāna municipality, there are also two archaeological monuments of local value: Karātavu kalns (Gallows Hill) – used as an execution spot – and Baznīcas kalniņš (Little Church Hill), that was a cult place. Within the framework of European cultural inheritance days in 2002, railway stations of Lubāna and Meirāni were included in the list of “Industrial inheritance”.